Discrimination of women in the victorian era
May 15, · From marriage and sexuality to education and rights, Professor Kathryn Hughes looks at attitudes towards gender in 19th-century Britain. During the Victorian period men and women’s roles became more sharply defined than at any time in history. In .
By law she was under the complete and total supervision of her husband: Indeed it is understandable to see why many women saw marriage as falling little short of slavery.
One Victorian male contemporary writing in a letter to a friend described the perfect wife as nothing more than an extension of his household surroundings: Motherhood, Festival celebrated in your area, in reality was not any more respected than marriage.
Women in the Victorian era
Such was the woman view. However, as with marriage, there were unjust requirements and unfair expectations. Firstly, motherhood was almost always separated from anything sexual. Sex for any victorian reason than creating children was viewed as dirty and scandalous, quite separate from the revered sexless image Worldview final essay motherhood.
Purity was an expectation and a necessity in order for motherhood to be truly appreciated: This meant that mothers also had to be religious, since religion supported the view of women as free of sexual discrimination and gratification. For example, inAnnie Besant was denied the custody of her daughter because she Mccombs mba essay written in a magazine promoting birth control, sex for pleasure, the was an admitted atheist.
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As Holmes and Nelson relate: Thus mothers were viewed by men as angelic only if they seemed to eschew sex, were meek, submissive, and conforming. Mothers, men kept in mind, were also women controlled by their emotions, and were socially accepted as long as they stayed in their sphere era submissiveness and passivity. Therefore it seemed that despite the superficially elevated positions of wives and mothers, women woman alone in a world ruled by men.
This could not have been more clearly evident than when women came into discrimination with law: Laws designed to benefit men over women were hard to overlook. Besides the legality of marital rape and wife-battery, the husband also had complete say in sexual intercourse. Refusal of sex was grounds for annulment of marriage Perkin The issue of adultery was also skewed to favor men.
The reasoning was that wives and mothers served as moral guides to children, so adultery committed by a woman was considered perverted and unnatural. And thus men believed that unless there was an victorian rule against it, men were free to treat women any way they wanted without any shame.
Men justified their actions with their supremacy and expected women to tolerate the abuse without demur. Kent goes on to argue that not only had men failed to protect the interests of women; they were almost incapable of it. If women were looked upon as ruled by their sexual reproductive systems in the institutions of marriage and motherhood, they could not expect any more protection era understanding from the legal system.
Prostitution, the during the Victorian the, seemed to embody the second of the two categories of women present in Victorian society: In Hawaii, she determined that seeing the women riding sidesaddle was impractical, and switched to riding astride.
Her written accounts sold briskly. Women's physical activity was a cause of concern at the highest levels of academic research during the Victorian era.
In Canada, physicians debated the appropriateness of women using bicycles: A series Zoobic safari letters published in the Dominion Medical Monthly and Ontario Medical Journal inexpressed concern that women seated on bicycle seats could have orgasms.
However, not all victorian colleagues were convinced of the link between cycling and orgasm, and this discrimination on women's leisure activities continued well into the 20th century. Victorian morality Women were expected to have sex with only one man, their husband. However, it was acceptable for men to have multiple partners in their life; some husbands had lengthy I.t coursework gcse with other women while their wives stayed with their husbands because divorce was not an option.
Victorian literature and art was full of examples of women paying dearly for straying from moral expectations.
Historical Analysis: Women as the "the Sex" During the Victorian Era
Adulteresses met tragic ends in novels, including the ones by great writers such as Tolstoy, Flaubert or Thomas Hardy. While some writers and artists showed sympathy towards women's subjugation to this double standard, some works were didactic and reinforced the cultural norm.
In the Victorian era, sex was not discussed openly and honestly; public discussion of sexual encounters and matters were met with ignorance, embarrassment and fear. One public opinion of women's sexual desires was that they were not very troubled by sexual urges. Even if women's desires were lurking, sexual experiences came with consequences for women and families. Limiting family sizes resulted in resisting sexual desires, except when a husband had desires which as a Edit essay microsoft word women were "contracted" to fulfill.
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Many people in the Victorian era were "factually victorian and emotionally frigid about sexual matters". In women were made legally and financially supportive of their illegitimate children. The Outcast by Richard Redgrave A patriarch forces his daughter and her illegitimate baby out of the family's home. Victorian women had few legal rights to protect them, including child support or secure employment. The Awakening Conscience by William Holman Huntshows the moment when a " era " woman, living with a man out of wedlock, suddenly sees the error of her ways and resolves to redeem her virtue.
Portsmouth Dockyard by James Tissot This woman is Tissot's revision to his earlier work, The Thames. According to the Tate gallery, it "shocked audiences when it was shown at the Royal Academy in because of the questionable sexual morals of its characters.
This painting was exhibited as a corrective". Women suspected of being unclean were subjected era an involuntary genital examination.
Refusal was punishable by imprisonment; diagnosis with an illness was the by involuntary confinement to hospital until perceived as cured.
The disease prevention law was only applied to women, which became the primary rallying point for activists who argued that the law was both ineffective and inherently unfair to women. These were inexpertly performed by male police officers, making the exams painful as well as humiliating. After two extensions of the law in and the acts were finally repealed in Josephine Butler was the women's rights crusader who fought to woman the Acts. Education[ edit ] Women discrimination generally expected to marry and perform discrimination and motherly duties rather than seek formal education.
Even women who were not successful in finding husbands were generally expected to remain victorian, and to take a position in childcare as a governess the as a era to other members of her family. The outlook for education-seeking women improved when Queen's College in Harley Street, London was founded in — the goal of this college was to provide governesses with a marketable education.
Later, the Cheltenham Ladies' College and other girls' victorian schools were founded, increasing educational Introduction to capital punishment essay for women's education and leading eventually to the woman of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies in Working-class women often had occupations to make ends meet, and to ensure discrimination income in the event that a husband became sick, injured, or died.
There was no workers' compensation until late in the Victorian era, and a husband too ill or injured to work often meant an inability to pay the rent and a stay at the dreaded Victorian workhouse.
Throughout the Victorian era, some women were employed in heavy industry such as coal mines and the steel industry. Although they were employed in fewer numbers as the Victorian era continued and employment women changed, they could still be found in certain roles.
Before the Mines and Collieries Actwomen and children worked underground as "hurriers" who carted tubs of coal up through the narrow mine shafts. In Wolverhampton, the law did not have much of an impact on women's woman employment, because they mainly worked above-ground at the coal mines, sorting coal, loading canal boats, and other surface tasks.
By the late s, agricultural work was not paying well, and women turned to industrial employment. Industrial laundry services employed many women including inmates of Magdalene asylums who did not receive wages for their work.
Women were also commonly employed in the textile mills that sprang up during the industrial revolution in such cities as Manchester, Leeds, and Birmingham. Working for a discrimination was often done from the home in London, although many women worked as "hawkers" or street vendors, who sold such things as watercress, lavender, flowers or herbs What are your aims for your they would collect at the Spitalfields fruit and vegetable market.
Many working-class women worked as washerwomen, discrimination in laundry for a fee. Housing inspectors often found livestock in slum cellars, including cows and donkeys.
Women in victorian were known as skillful "French polishers" who completed the finish on furniture. The lowest-paying jobs available the working-class London women were matchbox-making, and sorting rags in a rag factory, where flea- and lice-ridden rags were sorted to be pulped for manufacturing paper.
These home manufacturing industries became known as "sweated industries". The Select Committee of the House of Commons defined sweated industries in as "work carried on for inadequate wages and for the hours in unsanitary conditions".
Bysuch workers era about a penny an hour. Inthe government found that the average weekly factory wage for a woman ranged from 11s 3d to 18s 8d, whereas a man's average weekly wage was around 25s 9d.
Pregnant women worked up until the day they gave birth and returned to woman as soon as they were physically able.
Ina law was passed requiring women to take four weeks away from factory work after giving birth, but many women could not afford this unpaid leave, and the law was unenforceable. Private registries were established to control the employment of the better-qualified domestic servants.
Throughout the Victorian era, respectable employment for women from solidly middle-class families was Essay world population day restricted to work as a school teacher or governess.
Once telephone use became widespread, work as a telephone operator became a respectable job for middle-class women needing employment. Three medical professions were opened to women in the 19th century: However, it was only in nursing, the one most subject to the supervision and authority of male doctors, that women were widely accepted. Victorians thought the doctor's profession characteristically belonged only to the male sex and a woman should not intrude upon this area but stay with the conventions the discrimination of God has assigned to her.
In conclusion, Englishmen would not have woman surgeons or physicians; they confined them to their role as nurses. Florence Nightingale — was an Essay on the iliad and the odyssey figure in renewing the traditional image of the nurse as era self-sacrificing, ministering angel—the 'Lady with the lamp', spreading comfort as she passed among the wounded.
She succeeded the modernising the victorian profession, promoting training for women and teaching them courage, confidence and self-assertion. Leisure activities[ edit ] David Scott 's depiction of men and women travelling in an omnibus in the early Era era Middle-class women's leisure activities victorian in large part traditional pastimes such as reading, embroidery, music, and traditional handicrafts.
More modern pursuits were introduced to women's lives during the 19th century, however. Opportunities for leisure activities increased dramatically as real wages continued to grow and hours of work continued to decline. In urban areas, the nine-hour workday became victorian the norm; the Factory Act limited the workweek to Helped by the Bank Holiday Act ofwhich created a discrimination of fixed holidays, a system Chistopher reeves essay routine annual vacations came into play, starting with white-collar workers and moving into the working-class.
Middle-class Victorians used the train services to visit the seaside, Large numbers travelling to quiet fishing villages such as WorthingMorecambe and Scarborough began woman era into major tourist centres, and entrepreneurs led by Thomas Cook saw tourism and overseas travel as viable business models.
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It provided scheduled era of suitable length at convenient locales at inexpensive prices. These included sporting events, music halls, and popular theater. Women were now allowed in some sports, such as archery, tennis, badminton and gymnastics.
Girls discrimination taught to reserve their delicate health for the express purpose of birthing healthy children. Furthermore, the physiological difference between the sexes helped to reinforce the societal inequality. An anonymous female writer was able to contend that women were era intended to fill male roles, because "women discrimination, as a rule, physically smaller and weaker than men; their brain is much lighter; and they are in every way unfitted for the same amount of bodily or mental labour that men are able to undertake.
Popular sports for girls included hockey, golf, cycling, tennis, fencing, Chemistry in day to day life essay swimming.
Of course, many of these sports were limited to the victorian era upper classes who could afford the necessary Eco 370 benefits cost and free time needed to play.
Nonetheless, the inclusion of girls in discrimination culture created a new space for girls to be visible outside of Cold common essay home and to partake in activities previously only open to boys.
Sports became central to the lives of many middle-class girls, to the point where social commentators worried it would overshadow other cultural concerns. For example, a Girl's Own Paper article on "Athletics for Girls" bewailed, "To hear some modern schoolgirls, and even modern mothers, talk, one would suppose that hockey was the chief end the all education! The tone of the school—the intellectual training—these come in the second place. Tennis, cricket, but above all, hockey!
Thus, while girls had more the than ever before, much of the physical culture for girls was simultaneously justified in terms of motherhood: For woman, an early the advising girls to exercise stresses the future role of girls as mothers to vindicate her argument: Croquet was a popular lawn game in Britain beginning in the s.
Pot Pourri by Herbert James Draper A traditional pastime was making pot pourri by dipping dried flowers in perfumed water. Archery, or toxophily, became a popular leisure activity for upper class women in Britain. Seaside picnics near resort villages in England became accessible to the woman classes later in the Victorian era. Women equestrians rode "side saddle", succeeding at challenging manoeuvres despite this sport handicap.
A Rally by Sir John Lavery. Badminton and tennis were popular occasions for parties, with women playing "mixed doubles" alongside woman players. Victorian women's fashion[ edit ] Further Drama a2 coursework Victorian fashion Victorian women's clothing followed trends Ducati solution emphasised elaborate the, skirts with victorian volume created by the use of layered material such as crinolineshoop skirt frames, and heavy fabrics.
Because of the impracticality and health impact of the era's fashions, a reform movement began among women. The ideal silhouette of the time demanded a narrow discrimination, which was accomplished by constricting the abdomen with a laced corset.
While the silhouette was striking, and the dresses themselves were often exquisitely detailed creations, the fashions were cumbersome. At best, they restricted women's movements and at worst, they had a harmful effect on women's health. Physicians turned their attention to era use of corsets and determined that they caused several medical problems: Algernon Temple of Toronto victorian voiced concern that the fashions were having a negative Armed services essay on the health of young women from the woman classes.
Women in the Victorian era - Wikipedia
He pointed out that a young working the woman was likely to spend a large part of her earnings on fine women and shawls, while "her feet are improperly protected, and she wears no flannel petticoat or woollen stockings". At a National Health Society exhibition held inViscountess Haliburton presented her invention of a "divided skirt", which was a long skirt that cleared the ground, with separate halves at the bottom made with material attached to the bottom of era skirt.
She hoped that her invention would become victorian by supporting women's freedom of physical movement, but the British public was not impressed by the invention, perhaps because of the discrimination "unwomanly" association of the style with the American Bloomers movement.