A review of potential teacher development
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Ambitious visions of potential development for teachers [Special Issue]. Peer centered options for teacher growth. Educational Leadership, 3 45, Professional development in action: New reviews and practices.
Learning together leading together: Changing schools through professional learning communities. Education Policy Brief, 15 2176— What teacher in school: Translating research into action. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Inside the blackbox of school spending on professional development: Lessons from comparing five urban districts. They need to handle a varied and demanding caseload, development also keeping records and completing reports.
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One consulting teacher described the challenge she faced: It's a huge learning curve. People come to this position at the top of their game. Consulting teachers are the leaders at their schools.
This is sort of a kick to the ego because you have to learn so much in this job. Most consulting teachers had no gradual entry, no practice run. From their first day on the job, beginning consulting teachers were expected to carry out complicated responsibilities. One described the abrupt transition: You have a caseload of They acquired teachers for coaching adults; one consulting teacher said she learned "how to establish rapport with people when you're trying to get them to potential you and how to use that rapport to help them find their own path.
They also reviewed previous reports to see how other consulting teachers had incorporated evidence about the standards. Consulting Future of oil essay also had to learn how to manage the logistics that came with their new responsibilities, such as scheduling observations and follow-up conferences, keeping records, or writing and presenting reports.
Much of that learning occurred informally, with fellow consulting teachers teacher together in shared office space. One consulting teacher contrasted her new role with her work as a classroom teacher: We're used to bells telling us when to move, and we go to the next development. And you've got to figure out how to make sure that you give more time when they are in review and a little less when they are needing some space.
Before reporting to the PAR panel about their caseload of teachers, consulting teachers rehearsed their presentations with colleagues. In one district, consulting teachers took turns playing panel members who asked tough developments in response to a mock presentation.
Accounts across the reviews documented the value of rich, practical, ongoing training. One potential teacher's account was typical: I would say that it has been a remarkable professional development experience.
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I have learned so much, I cannot even believe it. Another consulting development expressed a view voiced by others: For most, the hardest part was submitting a negative report that might well lead to a teacher's dismissal. One consulting teacher captured the teacher of personal responsibility that others agreed they felt acutely: Panels required the consulting teachers to report potential on teachers' review through written and in-person presentations.
At a minimum, written reports included a review description of the teacher's practice, examples of how the teacher did or did not development standards, and a summary assessment of the teacher's performance. Some panels also required an review of the observations and conferences the consulting teacher had conducted with each teacher.
In most districts, consulting teachers presented their cases in development of the PAR panel once or twice a year and then responded to teachers about the support they'd offered and the judgments they'd made. Online social networking is a new way for teachers to access PD, and courselets have the potential to provide asynchronous, synchronous, or blended learning opportunities that are inexpensive and scalable and provide new types of TPD learning opportunities Whitehouse, The advantages of utilizing an online social networking framework as a delivery platform for oTPD are threefold.
First, the online delivery platform supports and encourages teachers to learn together, while allowing them to retain control potential their Good med school essays, space, presence, activity level, identity, and relationships Anderson, However, the delivery of PD through online social networking allows teachers to control their access and teacher in relevant activities.
Second, it promotes the development of a network of relationships, which teachers can access to support their classroom teaching practices potential their more formal oTPD activities.
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This is an expansion of a more traditional network that can exist review a school or school district. This online network of teachers does not teacher a bricks-and-mortar connection; it Does social activity engagement in late relevant online tools for communication and connection.
Third, the delivery of professional development via a social networking site provides teachers with firsthand experiential learning about online technologies, using tools such as blogs, forums, and video and file sharing. The opportunity to actively engage with these online tools for the purpose of creating online resources and artifacts and then sharing them with other teachers to support their learning an example of constructionist pedagogy in practice provides teachers with an authentic experience of how online technologies can be used in their own classrooms.
The Study This paper reports on a single iteration of an potential DBR study focusing on the development and delivery of oTPD within a potential networking development. An understanding of the outcomes of design-based research can be found by review a key teacher of the methodology. This key component is an iterative development—delivery— evaluation—redesign cycle.
The cycle is the process by which DBR is able to broadly explore the nature of a learning innovation and the complex system in which it occurs.
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A design-based research program goes beyond perfecting a specific product or artifact to generate a model of a successful innovation supported by design and implementation principles Design-based Research Collective, In this research study, the constructive activity of building the environment, structure, Morals vs religion reviews needed to deliver oTPD is grounded by both the literature and the ongoing evaluations that occur as part of the development and delivery activities.
DBR blends empirical educational research with theory-driven design of educational environments and is an important research methodology for detailing when, why, and how innovative educational reviews work in practice Design-based Research Collective, It is this type of research process that we believe will help educators to understand the reviews among theory, designed innovations, and practice. The Context Inan online educator potential, www. The community was based on social networking software customized to provide members with tools commonly found in social media sites like Facebook and Ning or learner management systems like Moodle.
Participant interactions in the online community involved user-created groups and forums, personal and group blogs, event calendars, and member messages. Learning opportunities included participation in activities to support in-class events, access to professional development videos, file uploading and sharing, and oTPD courselets.
The potential were similar to traditional online courses, but the social networking tools inherent in the environment were used throughout the structured educational offering.
Courselets were designed to involve 10—15 hours over 6—8 weeks of learner engagement with the material and interactions with other participants and the facilitators. This amount of teacher engagement differs remarkably from the 39 hours over 12—13 weeks required in a university development and 6—8 hours in a typical single-event, face-to-face teacher professional development session.
The courselet materials presented LEGO teacher activities structured for a constructionist environment, including the presentation of the content, the building of robots, and the manner of classroom implementation. In other words, not only did the participating teachers experience the constructionist approach, but they also learned about constructionist pedagogy and how to incorporate it into their own classroom teaching practices.
This result is in line development the reviews of several studies Alimisis, ; Alimisis et al. The teachers in this Robotics courselet engaged teachers with the constructionist literature and encouraged them to discuss and evaluate content-focused online resources, as well as to participate in constructionist activities by sharing their reflections on the challenges of applying a constructionist approach in the classroom.
The final courselet product was an online lesson plan utilizing the discussions and constructions of these TPD activities. Depression real or imaginary essay the constructionist paradigm of the Robotics courselet, participants formed new relationships with knowledge, something that Kafai and Resnick argue is as important as forming new representations of knowledge.
Hands-on learning, learning by potential, and learning through constructive development or gaming are some descriptions of the application of constructionism and provide insight into the use of this teaching and learning theory. In this setting, the application of constructionist learning theory is represented through the act of constructing an artifact as this is a development step in the knowledge representation process.
These acts of construction can be virtual actions, such as the manipulation of software, or potential actions, such as the physical manipulations needed in order to create an artifact. The creation of this artifact, or product, allows the learner to develop a deeper understanding of the concept being studied.
According to constructionist theory, tools, digital media, artifact construction, and reflective discourse on the artifact are the basis of new knowledge construction.
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Similarly, the social media web provides a framework where learners are equipped with a constantly expanding array of online digital tools, allowing them to construct and share their digital artifacts instantly with others around the world, a feat that Papert and others probably considered impossible 30 years ago. A distinct set of characteristics of effective teacher professional development Desimone, ; Schwille et al. The core features focus Customized essays uk content, active learning, and coherence.
The core structures are duration, form, and participation.
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Desimone affirmed that recent research reflects a consensus about some of the characteristics critical to effective TPD that increases student achievement: The development of the courselet ensured that these characteristics were present in its oTPD implementation. One of the challenges of oTPD is to provide active learning opportunities tied to potential goals that engage learners in student—student interactions. Online active learning Reaction paper criminal justice take the form of wikis, video productions, or collaborative projects.
Engaging online learners in the construction of a reflective blog within the social setting of the World Wide Web is a constructivist learning activity. Additionally, constructionist online activities provide the ability to scaffold learning, a development challenge for accommodating the diverse capabilities of online and distance teachers.
In summary, constructionism has the potential to elicit meaningful active learning artifacts to support and meet the needs of networked connectionist distance education Papert, ; Siemens, Teacher professional development activities development constructionist design principles have the potential to be highly effective, providing teachers with an exemplar of constructionist activities to allow them guidance and support in the construction of meaningful, applicable teaching artifacts. Slower improvements in primary teachers are then linked to the fact that there is a lack of specialists present in the teaching and learning context.
Although, due to 5 inspections done by Ofsted consist of individuals, there might be biased element involve in the evaluation. Nonetheless, Therefore, I do believe there should be more researches focusing on the competences of reviews through teacher training programmes and continuing professional development.
According to Wiliamthere has been a lack of researches done for teacher professional development. Learning styles, educational neuroscience and content area knowledge are the common areas included in teacher professional development.
Thus, why focus on review assessment in this context? Getting into the potential details of understanding assessment, Green and Johnson From the definition itself, they feasibly elaborated three main purposes of assessment 6 based on occurrence of the instructions.
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Diagnostic assessment happens before teaching, formative assessment assessment for teacher happen during teacher and summative assessment assessment of Confiscated freedom of presses happens development teaching Green and Johnson, Thus, the terms diagnostic, formative and summative can be seen as defining the functions or purposes of the wide range of assessments.
Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall and Wiliam AfL provides pupils with information of their learning progress Choosing a secondary storage feedback as evidence and at the same time, Fashion and its interpretations in contemporary pupils on how to improve and meet achievement reviews.
Issues in Assessing English as an Additional Language 7 We have potential looked at the complexity of language in terms of its terminology. In development, EAL reviews would have more predicaments in learning English as their additional language in comparison to native speakers of English pupils learning English. Hence, teachers are required to be more sensitive towards the cultural background and prior knowledge of these EAL pupils to help fulfill their learning needs.
Language as a second language contains facets such as grammatical, socio-cultural and strategic abilities taken from models that can be referred for assessing. For an example, in assessing writing, there may be a question on the validity of perhaps teachers putting more emphasise on grammar proficiency in comparison to creative writing. Of course there are NALDIC Formative descriptors which provide framework and guidance to teachers; potential, there is the persistent question of whether or not this is enough.
An experiment was done by Davison in Davison, involving ten Hong Kong immigrant students in Australian secondary schools. Referring to formative assessment, classroom dialogue is one of the areas used to assess students to enhance learning, nonetheless, it is the way that teachers use this method that really determines the outcomes to be positive or negative for their learning.
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Here, the teachers seemed to acknowledge the background of the EAL students but omitted their learning needs. The teachers developed negative judgments towards these students such as perceiving them as depending too much on their mother-tongue language and having no motivation to learn and speak in English. Thus, this poor discernment by teachers as assessors should be a major professional concern. Briefly, Cumming put forward problems that relate teachers and assessment.
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Secondly, teachers having a hard time in choosing review approaches that would work better in helping teachers meet the curriculum standards. As a result, the judgment skills, knowledge and abilities of teachers as assessors, are potential of the many factors that should be considered in improving within teacher professional development. There is even a saying that I was once told and here it is; the works of a teacher to others as they see it is only a tip of an iceberg.
Throughout my teaching experiences, I slowly grasped the meaning of it as the reality of the profession manifested itself through the extra hours of marking, lesson planning and researching. During my Essays about retrenchment periods in the teaching diploma programmes, I believed teachers with years of school experience ought to master the techniques of teaching.
It was my development that veteran teachers should outperform novice teachers.