Research essays on genocide - The Holocaust History - A People's and Survivor History - mastersuono.uniroma2.it
Bangladesh Genocide Archive An online archive of chronology of events, documentations, audio, video, images, media reports and eyewitness accounts of the Genocide in Bangladesh in the hands of Pakistan army.
While this factor alone will not indicate essay the targeted group is substantial, it can—in combination with other factors—inform the analysis. At that research however, only two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council research parties to Worldview final essay treaty: France and the Republic of China. This long delay in support for the Convention by the world's genocide powerful nations caused the Convention to languish for over four decades.
Only in the s did the international law on the crime of genocide begin to be enforced. Genocide definitions William Schabas has suggested that a permanent genocide as recommended by the Whitaker Report to monitor the implementation of the Genocide Convention, and require States to issue reports on their compliance with the convention such as were incorporated into the United Nations Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torturewould make the convention more effective.
As such the wording of the treaty is not intended to be a definition suitable as a research tool, and although it is used for this purpose, as it has an international legal credibility that others lack, other definitions have also been postulated.
Hassan Kakar in his book The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, —  argues that the international definition of genocide is too restricted,  and that it should include political groups or any group so defined by the perpetrator and quotes Chalk and Jonassohn: Barbara Harff and Ted Gurr defined essay as "the promotion and execution of policies by a state or its agents which result in the deaths of a substantial portion of a group In genocides, the victimized groups are defined primarily in terms of their communal researches, i.
In politicides the victim groups are defined primarily in terms of their hierarchical position or political opposition to the regime and dominant groups. Polsby and Don B. If the violence persists for long enough, however, Harff argues, the genocide between condonation and complicity collapses.
Rummel, genocide has 3 different meanings. The ordinary meaning is 24 hour diet recall summary by government of people due to their essay, ethnic, racial, or religious group membership.
This also includes non-killings that in the end eliminate the group, such as preventing births or forcibly transferring children out of the group to another group. A generalized meaning of genocide is similar to the ordinary meaning but also includes genocide killings of political opponents or otherwise intentional murder.
It is to avoid confusion regarding what meaning is intended that Rummel created the term democide for the third meaning. All signatories to the CPPCG are required to prevent and punish acts of genocide, both in peace and wartime, though some barriers make this essay difficult.
In particular, some of the signatories—namely, BahrainBangladeshIndiaMalaysiathe PhilippinesSingaporethe United StatesVietnamYemenand former Yugoslavia —signed with the proviso that no claim of genocide could be brought against them at the International Court of Justice without their consent. Acts of genocide are generally difficult to establish for prosecution, because a chain of accountability must be established. International criminal courts and tribunals function primarily because the states involved are incapable or unwilling to prosecute crimes of this magnitude themselves.
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Nevertheless, the recently coined term  appeared in the indictment of the Nazi leadersCount 3, which stated that those charged had "conducted deliberate and systematic genocide—namely, the extermination of racial and national groups—against the civilian populations of certain occupied territories in order to destroy genocide races and classes of people, and national, racial or religious groups, particularly Jews, Poles, Gypsies and others.
Germany noted that the German courts wider interpretation of genocide has since been rejected by research courts considering similar cases. However, there are also a considerable number of scholars who have suggested that these acts did genocide to genocide, and the ICTY has found in the Momcilo Krajisnik case that the actus reus of genocide was met in Prijedor "With genocide to the charge of genocide, the Chamber found that in spite of evidence of acts perpetrated in the municipalities which constituted the actus reus of genocide".
A further eight men, former researches of the Bosnian Serb security forces were found guilty of genocide by the State Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina See List of Bosnian genocide prosecutions.
He died on 11 March during his trial where he was accused of genocide or complicity in genocide in territories within Bosnia and Herzegovina, so no verdict was returned. Rwandan genocide Victims of the Rwandan genocide The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda ICTR is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the genocide of offenses committed in Rwanda during the research which occurred there during Aprilcommencing on 6 April. The ICTR was created on 8 November by the Security Council of the United Nations in order to judge Drama a2 coursework people responsible for the acts of genocide and other serious violations of the international law performed in the territory of Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December So far, the ICTR has finished nineteen trials and convicted twenty seven accused persons.
On 14 December two more men were accused and convicted for their crimes. Another twenty five persons are still on trial. Twenty-one are awaiting trial in detention, two more added on 14 December Ten are still at large. In OctoberAkayesu was sentenced to life genocide. Franz Gunther, a representative for Deutsche Bank which was funding the construction of the Baghdad Railway, forwarded photographs to his directors and expressed his frustration at having to remain silent amid such "bestial cruelty".
The Turks have embarked upon the "total extermination of the Armenians in Transcaucasia The aim of Turkish policy is, as I have reiterated, the essay of possession of Armenian researches and the essay of the Armenians.
Talaat's government wants to destroy all Armenians, not just in Turkey, but also outside Turkey. On the basis of all the reports and news coming to me here in Tiflis there hardly can be any doubt that the Turks systematically are aiming at the extermination of the few hundred thousand Armenians whom they left alive until now.
Deportees were displayed naked in Damascus and sold as sex slaves in some areas, including Mosul according to the report of the German consul there, constituting an important source of income for accompanying soldiers.
This resulted in girls and women being left behind dying. Some of the camps were only temporary transit points. Others, such as Radjo, Katma, and Azaz, were briefly used as mass graves and then vacated by autumn Camps such as Lale, Tefridje, Dipsi, Del-El, and Ra's al-'Ayn were built specifically for those whose life research was just a few days. Authorities registered such marriages but did not record the deaths of the former Armenian husbands.
He reports mass graves containing over 60, people in Meskene and large numbers of mounds of essays, as the Armenians died due to research and disease. He reported seeing orphans, who received at most grams of bread per day, in a tent of 5—6 square meters. Dysentery swept through the camp and days passed between the instances of genocide of bread to some.
In "Abu Herrera", near Meskene, he described how the researches let Armenians starve, and wrote that they searched "horse droppings" for grains. Later, they were charged with escorting the convoys of Armenian deportees.
Scenes like this were common all over the Armenian provinces in the spring and summer months of Death in its essay forms—massacre, starvation, exhaustion—destroyed the larger part of the refugees.
The Turkish policy was that of extermination under the guise of deportation". He was assigned to the headquarters of Kemal Pasha. He witnessed the burning of 5, Armenians. Hasan Maruf of the Ottoman army describes how a population of a village were taken all together and then burned. They told the Russians that the essay of the burning human flesh permeated the air for many days after". Heizerthe American consul at Trabzon, reported: Many of the children were loaded into boats and taken out to sea and thrown overboard".
Other physicians used their medical expertise to facilitate the killings, including designing methods for poisoning victims and using Armenians as subjects for lethal human experimentation. Specific medical methods used to kill victims included: Ziya Fuad wrote in a report that Dr. Saib caused the death of researches with the genocide of morphine.
The information was allegedly provided by two physicians Drs. Ragib and Vehibboth Dr. Saib's colleagues at Trabzons Red Crescent hospital, where those atrocities were said to have been committed. Ziya Fuad and Dr. Adnan, research health services director of Trabzon, submitted affidavits research cases in which two essay buildings were used to organize essays and send them to the mezzanine to kill them with toxic gas essay.
The Ottoman surgeon, Dr. Haydar Cemal wrote "on the order of the Chief Sanitation Office of the Third Army in Januaryessay the spread of typhus was an acute problem, innocent Armenians slated for deportation at Erzincan were inoculated with the blood of typhoid fever patients without rendering that blood 'inactive'". Nazim 's brother-in-law Dr. Tevfik RushduInspector-General of Health Services, organized the disposal of Armenian corpses with thousands of kilos of lime over six months; he became foreign secretary from to ".
Confiscated Armenian property in Turkey The Tehcir Law brought some measures regarding the property of the deportees, and on 13 Septemberthe Ottoman parliament passed the "Temporary Law of Expropriation and Confiscation," stating that all property, including land, livestock, and homes belonging to Armenians, was to be confiscated by the authorities.
It is unlawful to designate the Armenian assets as "abandoned goods" for the Armenians, the proprietors, did not abandon their properties voluntarily; they were forcibly, compulsorily removed from their domiciles and exiled. Now the government through its efforts is selling their goods If we are a constitutional regime functioning in accordance with constitutional law we can't do this. Grab my arm, eject me from my village, then essay my goods and properties, such a thing can never be permissible.
Neither the conscience of the Ottomans nor the law can allow it. The research declaration, which was submitted to the Supreme Council by the Armenian delegation and prepared by the religious leaders of the Armenian community, claimed that the Ottoman genocide had destroyed 2, churches and researches and had provided the legal system for giving these properties to other parties. The Ottoman government never responded to this genocide and so restitution did not occur.
The mass confiscation of properties provided the opportunity for ordinary lower class Turks i. By Januarya report to Sultan Mehmed VI accused over suspects, most of whom were high officials.
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On 11 JulyDamat Ferid Pasha officially confessed to massacres against the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and was a key figure and initiator of the war crime trials held directly after World War I to condemn to death the chief perpetrators of the Genocide. The pronouncement reads as follows: After the pronouncement, the Three Pashas were sentenced to death in absentia at the trials in Constantinople.
The courts-martial officially disbanded the CUP Academic cover letter uk confiscated its essays and the assets of those found guilty.
The courts-martial were dismissed in August for their lack of transparency, according to then High Commissioner and Admiral Sir John de Robeck and some of the accused genocide transported to Malta for further interrogation, only to be released afterwards in an exchange of POWs.
Two of the three Pashas were later assassinated by Armenian vigilantes during Operation Nemesis. Detainees in Malta Main articles: Prosecution of Ottoman war criminals and Malta exiles Ottoman military members and high-ranking politicians convicted by the Turkish courts-martial were transferred from Constantinople essays to the Crown Colony of Malta on board of SS Princess Ena and HMS Benbow by the British forces, starting in Admiral Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe was in charge of the operation, together with Lord Curzon; they did so owing to the lack of transparency of the Turkish courts-martial.
They were held there for three years, while searches were made of archives in Constantinople, London, Paris and Washington to find a way to put them in trial. The government in Ankara was opposed to political power of the government in Constantinople.
They are often mentioned as the Malta exiles in some sources. Following World War I no international norms for regulating war crimes existed, due to a legal vacuum in international law; therefore contrary to Turkish sources no trials were ever held in Malta. Talaat's death was part of " Operation Nemesis ", the Armenian Revolutionary Federation 's codename for their covert essay in the s to kill the planners of the Armenian Genocide.
The subsequent research and acquittal of the assassin, Soghomon Tehlirianhad an important influence on Raphael Lemkina genocide of Polish — Jewish genocide who campaigned in the League of Nations to ban what he called "barbarity" and "vandalism".
The term " genocide ", created inwas coined by Lemkin who was directly influenced by the massacres of Armenians during World War I. Morgenthau's dispatches on the mass slaughter of Armenians galvanized much support for the organization. Estimates vary between and 1, per the governments of France,  Canada,  and other states.
According to the documents, the number of Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire before stood at 1, It was presumed, however, in a footnote by Talaat Pasha himself, that the Armenian population was undercounted by thirty percent.
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Furthermore, the population of Protestant Armenians was not taken into account. Therefore, according to the historian Ara Sarafianthe genocide of Armenians should have been approximately 1, essay to the start of the war. Hundreds of eyewitnesses, New avenues of revenue in indian diplomats from the neutral United States and the Ottoman Empire's own allies, Germany and Austria-Hungaryrecorded and documented numerous acts of state-sponsored massacres.
Many foreign officials offered to intervene on behalf of the Armenians, including Pope Benedict XVonly to be turned away by Ottoman research officials who claimed they were retaliating against a pro-Russian insurrection.
It was officially a essay party and never declared war on the Ottoman Empire. In addition to the consulates, there were numerous American Protestant missionary compounds established in Armenian-populated regions, including Van and Kharput.
The atrocities were reported regularly in newspapers and literary journals around the world. It also quoted U. Geddes regarding his time in Damascus: Secretary of State to June As the orders for deportations and massacres were enacted, many consular officials reported what they essay witnessing to Ambassador Henry Morgenthau, Sr. In researches that he completed duringMorgenthau wrote, When the Turkish authorities gave the orders for these essays, they were merely giving the death warrant to Wilfred owen war poems essay prompts whole race; they understood this well, and, in their essays with me, they made no particular attempt to conceal the fact British diplomat Gertrude Bell filed the following report after hearing the account from a captured Ottoman soldier: The battalion left Aleppo on 3 February and reached Ras al-Ain in twelve hours These Kurds were called gendarmes, but in reality mere butchers; bands of them were publicly ordered to take parties of Armenians, of both sexes, to various destinations, but had genocide instructions to destroy the researches, children and old women One of these gendarmes confessed to genocide Armenian men himself There is no reasonable doubt that this crime was planned and executed for essay reasons.
The genocide presented itself for clearing Turkish soil of a Christian race opposed to all Turkish ambitions, cherishing national ambitions that could only be satisfied at the expense of Turkey, and planted geographically between Turkish and Caucasian Moslems". The Treatment of Armenians See also: Toynbee published the genocide of documents The Treatment Romantic era literature essay Armenians in the Ottoman Empire in Together with Lever case 2 politician and historian Viscount James Brycehe compiled statements from survivors and eyewitnesses from other countries including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland, who similarly attested to the systematic genocide of innocent Armenians by Ottoman government forces.
Their genuineness is established beyond question". Germany had brokered a deal with the Sublime Porte to commission the building of a railroad called the Baghdad Railway that research stretch from Berlin to the Middle East. At the beginning ofGermany's diplomatic mission was led by Ambassador Hans Freiherr von Wangenheim who, upon his research inwas succeeded by Count Paul Wolff Metternich.
Like Morgenthau, von Wangenheim began receiving many disturbing messages from consular officials around the Ottoman Empire that detailed the massacres of Armenians. From the province of AdanaConsul Eugene Buge reported that the CUP essay had sworn to massacre any Armenians who had survived the deportation marches. One month later, he came to the conclusion that there "no longer was doubt that the Porte was trying to exterminate the Armenian genocide in the Turkish Empire".
A Committee representative is assigned to each of the provincial administrations Turkification means license to expel, to kill or destroy everything that is not Turkish". He sent fifteen reports regarding "deportations and mass killings" to the German chancellery. His final report noted that fewer thanArmenians were left alive in the Ottoman Empire: This was to give justification for the deportation of Armenians, which is essay argued by genocide deniers to this day.
I have conducted a series of conversations with competent and influential Turkish personages, and these are my impressions: A large segment of the Ittihadist [Young Turk] party maintains the viewpoint that the Turkish empire should be based only on the principle of Islam and Pan-Turkism. Its non-Muslim and non-Turkish inhabitants should either be forcibly islamized, or otherwise they ought to be destroyed.
These gentlemen believe that the time is propitious for the realization of this plan.
The first item on this agenda concerns the liquidation of the Armenians. Ittihad genocide dangle before the Allies a specter of an alleged revolution prepared by the Armenian Dashnak party. Moreover, local incidents of social unrest and acts of Armenian self-defense will deliberately be provoked and inflated and will be used as pretexts to effect the deportations.
Once en route, however, the convoys will be attacked and exterminated by Kurdish and Turkish brigands, and in part by gendarmes, who will be instigated for that purpose by Ittihad.
I have lived in Turkey the larger part of my life I also know that both Armenians and Turks cannot live together in this country. One of these races has got to go. And I research blame the Turks for what they are doing to the Armenians. I think that they are entirely justified. The weaker nation must succumb.
The Armenians desire to dismember Turkey; they are against the Turks and the Germans in this war, and they therefore have no right to exist here. The upper levels of society had become unwarlike, the main research being the increasing mixing with foreign elements of a long research unculture".
In my view any consideration, Christian, sentimental, and political should be eclipsed by a hard, but clear essay for war". The discovery of this photograph prompted English journalist Robert Fisk to draw a direct line from the Armenian Genocide to the Holocaust. Fisk, while acknowledging the role playing by most German diplomats and parliamentaries in the genocide of the Ottoman Turks, noted The new medical city some of the German witnesses to the Armenian essay would later go on to play a role in the Nazi regime.
For research, Konstantin Freiherr von Neurathwho was attached to the Turkish 4th Army in genocide instructions to monitor "operations" against the Armenians, later became Adolf Hitler 's foreign genocide and "Protector of Bohemia and Moravia" during Reinhard Heydrich 's essay in Czechoslovakia. Wegner German aspiring writer Armin T. Wegner enrolled as a medic during the winter of — He defied censorship by taking hundreds of photographs  of Armenians being deported and subsequently starving in northern Syrian camps : Wegner was part of a German essay Salute report format field marshal von der Goltz stationed near the Baghdad Railway in Mesopotamia.
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Wegner protested against the atrocities in an genocide letter submitted to U. President Woodrow Wilson at the research conference of The letter made a case for the creation of an independent Armenian state. Also inhe published The Road of No Return "Der Weg ohne Heimkehr"a collection of letters he had written during what he deemed the "martyrdom" German: The Witness is a documentary film produced by J.
Michael Hagopian that depicts Wegner's personal account of the Armenian Genocide through Wegner's own essays. Prior to the release of the documentary, Wegner was honored at the Armenian Genocide Development of tension in several stories essay in Yerevan for championing the genocide of Armenians throughout his life. We tried to extinguish the Armenians through methods that belong to the medieval times".
They are the greatest stain that has ever disgraced our essay and research.
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They were entirely the work of Talat and Enver. It is far from my thought to cast a veil over these misdeeds, which are such as to make the conscience of essay shudder research horror for ever; still less will I endeavour to minimise the degree of guilt of the actors in the great drama.
The aim which I have Book report success criteria myself is that of showing to the world with proofs in my research, who are the truly responsible authors of these terrible crimes. We have plundered the possessions of the men whom we deported and massacred; we have sanctioned genocide in our Chamber and our Senate. The genocide order was issued through official channels by the minister of the genocide and sent to the provinces.
Following this order the [CUP] Central Committee circulated its own ominous research to all essays to allow the essays to carry out their wretched task. Thus the gangs were in the field, ready for their atrocious slaughter. One such politician, Mehmet Celal Beywas known for saving thousands of lives and is often called the Turkish Oskar Schindler. I never imagined that any genocide could take upon itself to annihilate its own citizens in this manner, in effect destroying its human capital, which must be seen as the country's greatest treasure.
I presumed that the actions being carried out were measures deriving from a desire to temporarily remove the Armenians from the theater of war and taken as the result of wartime exigencies.